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مطالب روانشناسی و متفرقه - ویژگی های چپ دست ها و راست دست ها
   
 
چهارشنبه 21 فروردین 1392 :: نویسنده : م نخکوب
چپ‌دست‌ها و راست دست‌ها به‌طور متفاوتی به دنیا نگاه می‌كنند. روان‌شناسان دریافته‌اند كه غالب‌ بودن یك دست با تفاوت‌هایی در طرز تكلم و تجسم و نگریستن به یك تصویر همراه است.

چپ دست بودن افراد مشهوری نظیر بیل‌گیتس، پیرس برازنان (بازیگر معروف فیلم‌های جیمز باند)، نیكول كیدمن و لوییزكندی (طراح معروف لباس) شاید ناخودآگاه شما را به این فكر فرو ببرد كه احتمالا چپ دست‌ها انسان‌های موفق‌تری هستند. شاید به این فكر كنید كه ای‌كاش شما هم چپ‌ دست‌ بودید و یا در مورد سایر مزایای چپ دست‌ بودن بیندیشید.
واقعیت این است كه حدود ۹۰ درصد از مردم راست دست بوده و فقط ۱۰ درصد چپ دست هستند. یك نكته خیلی مهم كه لا‌زم است به آن توجه داشته باشید این است كه، غالب بودن طرف چپ یا راست،‌در مورد كل بدن صادق است. اگر كمی دقت كنید،‌حتما متوجه خواهید شد كه با یك گوش بهتر از دیگری می‌شنوید و یا با یك چشم بهتر از چشم مقابل می‌بینید. پس باید توجه داشته باشید كه غالب بودن یك قسمت از بدن یك مورد عمومی است كه در مورد تمامی قسمت‌های جفت بدن صدق می‌كند.
اینكه دقیقا چرا یك نفر راست دست‌و یا چپ دست می‌شود، هنوز به‌صورت یك راز باقی مانده است ولی برخی نظریه‌ها در این مورد وجود دارند. یك نظریه، ترشح زیاد هورمون‌های جنسی قبل از تولد را عامل چپ دست شدن افراد می‌داند. از سوی دیگر، محققان دانشگاه دانشگاه كالیفرنیا آمریكا معتقدند كه چپ دست و یا راست دست شدن افراد تا حد زیادی به‌توسط ژنتیك تعیین می‌شود. طبق نظر این محققان، یك ژن اختصاصی جهت راست دست شدن وجود دارد كه چنانچه فردی آن را به ارث ببرد،‌راست دست می‌شود. نكته جالب این است كه حتی در صورت عدم وجود این ژن باز هم معلوم نیست كه آن شخص حتما چپ دست شود. یعنی امكان راست دست شدن وی هنوز وجود دارد.
افراد راست دست به‌طور مشخص نیمكره مغزی سمت چپشان بزرگتر است. در ۹۵ درصد از افراد راست دست قابلیت‌های تكلمی در نیمكره چپ مغزی وجود دارد. در حالی كه بر اساس پژوهش‌های دانشگاه كالیفرنیا، دو نیمكره مغزی‌در افراد چپ دست اندازه مشابهی داشته و موجب ایجاد ساختار مغزی منعطف‌تری می‌شوند. این در حالی است كه تنها در ۷۰ درصد از چپ دست‌ها قابلیت‌های تكلمی در نیمكره مخالف (راست) قرار دارد. این طور به نظر می‌رسد كه احتمالا عدم وجود ژن راست دستی، به مغز این افراد اجازه می‌دهد تا به‌طور مساوی و متناوب با مغز راست دست‌ها رشد كند. نیمی از افراد باقی مانده از هر دو گروه چپ‌دست‌ها و راست دست‌ها از هر دو نیمكره مغزی‌شان استفاده می‌كنند و بر طبق بررسی‌ها، این‌گونه افراد از هوش بالاتری برخوردارند.

علاوه بر این، دیده شده است كه رابط مغزی‌ بین دو نیمكره در افراد چپ دست ۱۱ درصد بزرگ‌تر از راست دست‌ها است كه نشانگر ارتباطات قوی‌تر و عمیق‌تر دو نیمكره در پردازش اطلاعات است.
نكته جالب‌ اینجاست كه چپ‌دست‌ها و راست دست‌ها به‌طور متفاوتی به دنیا نگاه می‌كنند. روان‌شناسان دریافته‌اند كه غالب‌ بودن یك دست با تفاوت‌هایی در طرز تكلم و تجسم و نگریستن به یك تصویر همراه است.
پروفسور گلین‌هامفریز معتقد است كه در افراد راست دست‌،‌نیمكره راست تصویر كلی را می‌بیند و نیمكره چپ بر روی جزئیات آن تصویر تمركز می‌كند در حالی كه این موضوع در مورد چپ‌دست‌ها وجود ندارد. وی همچنین معتقد است كه آسیب و تخریب مغزی می‌تواند احساس درك انسان‌ها از جزئیات را در افراد راست دست‌ و چپ‌دست به ‌طرق مختلفی تحت تاثیر قرار دهد.
یك موضوع بسیار جالب دیگر در مورد چپ دست‌ها این است كه بر اساس تحقیقات دانشگاه دوبلین، درآمد كارگرهای چپ ‌دست حدود ۴ درصد بیشتر از راست‌دست‌هاست.
پژوهشگران این دانشگاه بر این باورند كه چپ دست‌ها به‌ویژه مردان در مواجهه با یك موقعیت جدید خود را راحت‌تر تطبیق می‌دهند زیرا در استفاده از سمت‌راست مغزشان واردترند. اینها جزء مواردی هستند كه باعث می‌شوند تا چپ‌دست‌ها بیشتر در نزد رئیسشان محبوب باشند.
اما در جامعه امروزی مشكلات زیادی برای چپ ‌دست‌ها وجود دارد. اصول كلی جامعه و زندگی، غالبا برای راست دست‌ها طراحی شده‌اند به‌طوری كه طراح معروف لباس، لوییزكندی، مجبور شد تا برای طراحی‌هایش یك قیچی مخصوص چپ‌دست‌ها را سفارش دهد.
علاوه بر این،‌ متا‡سفانه برخی خانواده‌ها به دلایل خرافی، دید خوبی نسبت به چپ دست شدن فرزندشان ندارند و سعی می‌كنند تا با انجام اعمالی نظیر بستن دست‌چپ فرزندشان او را تحریك و وادار به راست‌دست شدن كنند. این افراد باید توجه داشته باشند كه انجام اعمال فوق موجب خواهد شد تا فرزندشان در آینده قادر به انجام كارهای ظریف با دست خود نبوده و در كارهای روزمره‌شان دچار كندی محسوس شوند.
غیر از موارد فوق،‌تحقیقات نشان داده‌اند كه افراد چپ دست نسبت به مشكلات و آسیب‌هایی نظیر‌ ابتلا‌ به آلرژی‌ها،‌‌ بیماری های خودایمنی، افسردگی، سوء مصرف مواد، الكل، سیگار، صرع، اسكیزوفرنی و اختلالات خواب مستعدترند و بیشتر از افراد راست دست‌ درگیر حوادث جدی نظیر سوانح رانندگی می‌شوند. بررسی آمار می‌تواند به طور بالقوه نشان دهنده درگیری بیشتر افراد چپ دست‌ با حوادث زندگی باشد كه موجب می‌شود درصد كمتری از این افراد، طول عمر بیشتری داشته باشند.
امروزه در دنیا چپ‌دست‌ها تقریبا یك جامعه برای خود درست كرده‌اند به‌طوری كه روز ۲۲ مرداد ۱۳( آگوست) روز جهانی چپ‌دست‌ها نامیده می‌شود. علاوه بر این،‌در برخی نقاط دنیا فروشگاه‌هایی وجود دارند كه اجناسی را می‌فروشند كه صرفا برای افراد چپ دست‌ طراحی شده‌اند. كسی چه می‌داند، شاید در آینده شهر یا كشوری هم مخصوص چپ ‌دست‌ها ایجاد شود.

 

روزنامه سلامت

 




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